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{ Sobre la discriminación positiva }

Hoy Almudena M. Castro publica una interesante entrada en el blog Naukas sobre Blogs de ciencia, estereotipos y feminismo. Trata sobre la cuestión de que hay poca representación femenina en las conferencias de Naukas en Bilbao (en la que éste año participé con una minicharla). Éste hecho ya fue criticado el año pasado por Jaio, quien hace poco ha vuelto a cargar las tintas en su blog 44 hombres y 2 mujeres. ¿Otra vez?:

«Tengo la perversa sensación de que este colectivo de 'machos alfa' se ha propuesto imponer su ley y su criterio al margen de cualquier tipo de intento de razonamiento. Edificante este uso de la racionalidad para tanto "centífico" [léase como una ironía]. Lo aclaro por si tanta RAZÓN, les nubla la emoción. VISIBILIDAD Y PRESENCIA no es pedir nada injusto».

A Jaio, a quien aprecio, le contesté en un comentario, con cierta indignación por su forma de criticar. No tengo constancia de que en Naukas se haya se haya impedido la participación de mujeres por razones de sexo. La diferencia entre el número de mujeres y hombres es, a priori, un reflejo del estado de la blogosfera divulgativa: más hombres, que mujeres. No puedo compartir las formas de Jaio, pero sí que me preocupaba el fondo de la cuestión. Así que durante y después de las conferencias he ido atracando a propios y extraños planteándoles el dilema. Salvo algunas notables excepciones, me he encontrado con una opinión generalizada: si la organización no está discriminado activamente, ¿cuál es el problema? La alternativa, no gusta. En palabras de Almudena:

«Francamente, no creo en la discriminación positiva. Para empezar, porque no soportaría sufrirla y además, me parece injusta con mis compañeros varones. Pero, sobre todo, creo que no deja de ser algún tipo de "rescate"... pedir, otra vez, ser protegidas y mimadas, las eternas hijas de las ninfas, suspiros de alhelí, oh débiles princesas».

Iba por la misma línea de pensamiento, pero en la última semana me he visto forzado a cambiar de opinión. Durante un almuerzo en el Naukas de Bilbao, Javier de la Cueva nos criticaba por sentar cátedra en cuestiones no científicas donde hay evidencias. Javier nos indicaba que en EEUU se han realizado muchos estudios sobre discriminación positiva. Éstos indican que a largo plazo disminuyen la desigualdad. Teresa de la Fe, socióloga y también amiga, me remitió a este estudio publicado en Science, Affirmative Action Policies Promote Women and Do Not Harm Efficiency in the Laboratory:

«Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are one source of unequal labor market outcomes concerning wages and promotions. Given that studying the effects of policy interventions to support women is difficult with field data because of measurement problems and potential lack of control, we evaluated, in a set of controlled laboratory experiments, four interventions: quotas, where one of two winners of a competition must be female; two variants of preferential treatment, where a fixed increment is added to women’s performance; and repetition of the competition, where a second competition takes place if no woman is among the winners. Compared with no intervention, all interventions encourage women to enter competitions more often, and performance is at least equally good, both during and after the competition».

Si prefieres el castellano, El País se hizo eco: Un experimento prueba la eficacia de la discriminación positiva. En Mapping Ignorance también han publicado un artículo titulado The effects of Affirmative Action policies against discrimination. Aunque el estudio es sobre el efecto de la discriminación positiva en el mercado laboral estadounidense, las conclusiones son similares: aumenta la participación de los grupos discriminados («sin pagar un coste debido a la reducción de productividad»).

Posteriormente, un amigo me criticó en privado la respuesta que le di a Jaio. Criticar las formas, creyendo que los conflictos se solventan siempre por las buenas, es un tanto ingenuo. Argumentar que la situación actual es simplemente un reflejo de la sociedad es la excusa perfecta para quedarse de brazos cruzados. Así, pues, coincido con Jaio: si quienes enarbolan la bandera del racionalismo, quienes aspiran a cultivar la sociedad, no hacen nada, ¿quién lo va a hacer?

PD: Almudena hace una llamada a la acción: si eres mujer y te gusta la divulgación, ¡abre un blog!

Etiquetas: , ,
Categorías: Política, Ciencia
Publicado el 2013-10-11 | 67 Comentarios | Enlace


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Comentarios

1
De: Alejandro Rivero Fecha: 2013-10-12 04:09

Yo soy un creyente, y lo digo asi porque no tengo evidencia de si funciona o no, en la discriminacion positiva simetrica. Esto es, asegurarse tambien de que se pone al menos un 40% de hombres en los nichos totalmente femenininos, con el punto de que si son de explotacion al menos la carga se reparte y si son ghettos, se eliminan.



2
De: José Luis Ferreira Fecha: 2013-10-12 11:22

Gracias por el enlace.

Efectivamente, todos los estudios empíricos y experimentales ofrecen sistemáticamente los mismos resultados: la discriminación positiva, por lo menos en los niveles en que se han planteado, ayuda a la participación sin merma de la calidad. Esto debe hacernos pensar que el no hacer discriminación activa no es suficiente. Hay que buscar y atraer al colectivo infra representado. Lo contrario es perpetuar la situación actual.

Un saludo.



3
De: rvr Fecha: 2013-10-12 17:32

Alejandro: Históricamente, son las mujeres las que estaban fuera del ámbito de trabajo y de decisiones, por lo que es comprensinble por qué existen determinadas políticas contra la discriminación y no otras. Incluso en los ámbitos más dados al uso de la razón, se demuestra que las mujeres son las discriminadas. Hay un artículo publicado en PNAS titulado Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students (en español, hablan de él en Sexismo en la ciencia: el caso de Jennifer y John). Es posible, no sé si hasta probable, que en el futuro sea necesario "corregir" la escasa representación masculina en ciertos lugares.

José Luis: Gracias por tu aportación.



4
De: Teresa Fecha: 2013-10-14 16:58

El problema con la presencia de mujeres en la ciencia, especialmente en la tecnología, me parece que es más profundo y difícil de solucionar. Lo que no quita para que se ejerza la discriminación positiva allí donde sea posible. Tiene que ver, en mi opinión, con la forma en que se socializa a niños y niñas y con las creencias sociales profundamente arraigadas sobre lo femenino y lo masculino.



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De: rvr Fecha: 2013-10-14 22:02

Teresa: Tengo entendido que en la India son mayoría las mujeres que estudian carreras de ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas (eso que en inglés llaman "STEM"). ¿Hay alguna diferencia cultural que lo explique?



6
De: anónimo Fecha: 2013-11-04 13:49

Estudios no científicos, sino de "ciencia social" o "humanidades" que demuestran siempre la tesis que desde el principio se pretendía apoyar.

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